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 FDA. FDA. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company began selling the antibiotic without prior testing. Because it was made using a known poison as a solvent, over 100 people died and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) was formed.
 Cold. Cold. Antibiotics are usually not effective for sore throats and colds because they are caused by viruses, not bacteria. The use of antibiotics for such diseases is considered more harmful than helpful.
 Tetracycline. Tetracycline. Ancient Nubian mummies were found to have the modern antibiotic Tetracycline in their bones. The Egyptians got it from beer
 Med. Med. Due to the medicinal effect of thousands of pollen flowers and hydrogen peroxide, even MSRA and VRE bacteria have difficulty surviving. At the same time, honey retains all its properties
 Expensive wine tastes better. Expensive wine tastes better. Certain information can distort a person's ability to really appreciate what is being served. And in the case of wine tasting, the tongue and the brain can be tricked into more pleasant sensations.
In 2015, volunteers were asked to taste wine from five different bottles. The price ranged from 3 to 55 pounds per bottle. In reality, there were only three varieties of wine, just two varieties served with different price tags.
Volunteers, who were in happy ignorance, rated the cheap fake as the...
 The Bloody Mary Mystery. The Bloody Mary Mystery. In 2013, the German airline Lufthansa noticed that passengers order tomato juice much more often in the air than on the ground. Every year they drink about 1.8 million liters of juice, and this fact has made Bloody Mary as popular as beer.
The cocktail was liked even by those people who usually do not drink tomato juice. Volunteers were gathered again, this time in an Airbus A310 that was on the ground. When the "passengers" were served drinks, they said that the cocktail had a "sour" smell....
 Taste can help with depression. Taste can help with depression. Taste can influence emotions. On the other hand, anxiety and depression decrease taste perception. There is evidence that melancholia interferes with the perception of how fatty food is and even suppresses the taste of milk. This is bad news for those who neglect comfort and eat after a busy day.
But taste, in turn, can help those suffering from depression and anxiety and provide more effective treatment. When healthy volunteers were given antidepressants that contained certain neurotransmitters,...
 The battle for the recognition of the sixth taste. The battle for the recognition of the sixth taste. Traditionally, the human palate was thought to be capable of recognizing only four tastes. The discovery of "umami" proved this wrong. Some scientists believe that a sixth taste is also possible. And there are seven candidates for his role.
Mice have two receptors that are able to recognize calcium. One of them is also in the human language, but its connection with the chalky taste remains unproven. Japanese researchers believe that this receptor is responsible for another implicit taste called...
 Unusual tastes. Unusual tastes. All people perceive tastes differently, but most of the population falls into the group that feels the main tastes with approximately the same intensity.
But there is also a small percentage of deviations. In some people, receptors react to temperature, so they perceive cold food as sour, and hot food as sweet. Some people have a genetic distortion in the taste of coriander - for them it looks like soap.
There are extremes - when people either do not feel any taste at all, or feel it extremely...
 The taste of water. The taste of water. Almost everyone believes that water has no taste. But if it does, it's usually because there are chemicals in the tap water or an aftertaste from the pipes. Scientists are not ready to accept this. If water were devoid of any taste, it would not have such an effect on the behavior of animals.
Since water is critical to life, it makes sense for living organisms to be able to identify it by taste and smell. And this is true, water-sensing receptors are present in both amphibians and insects. There...
 Even in the intestines there are taste buds. Even in the intestines there are taste buds. It may seem incredible, but there are taste buds in the human gut. And this is not at all as unusual as it seems at first glance. The mouth is the beginning of a long tube called the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and the intestines are also part of this tube.
However, taste buds located in the gut are different from those found on the tongue. The task of the latter is to signal to the brain that it enters the mouth. If it tastes good, the person swallows. The food then enters the intestines.
The...
 Wonderful berries. Wonderful berries. A small red berry from West Africa can even give vinegar the taste of liquid sugar. It's funny that this so-called "miracle berry" itself is practically tasteless. But as soon as the berry is eaten, you can safely chew even a lemon.
Miracle Berries add a sweet flavor to any sour food. These berries contain miraculin, a protein that binds to sweet taste receptors, making them more sensitive, and blocks sour taste receptors. This can get to the point where the tongue almost loses sensation, so...
 Virtual flavors. Virtual flavors. Recently, scientists have worked with the elderly and patients who received chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Both cancer treatment and aging can cause severe taste loss.
The researchers' approach was innovative and creative. Love sour lemonade? Use a cup that intensifies the sour taste as it fills up. Another device, the smart spoon, can create or complement food flavors. Like a cup, the button on the handle of the spoon can be used to reduce or increase the sensation of sour, bitter or salty...
 A person who tastes words. A person who tastes words. It may sound like fiction, but there are people who have a taste for words. They even have their own name - synesthetes. In such people, irritation in one sensory or cognitive system leads to an automatic, involuntary response in another sensory system, so, for example, sight or hearing can affect touch and taste.
One of the rarest forms of synesthesia is gustatory. During the experiments, these people felt the taste of even unfamiliar objects. And after a few years they were able to remember...
 Water has not three states, but more. Water has not three states, but more. As we were all taught in school, water has three states, but this is not entirely true. Scientists have proven that it has 5 different states in liquid form and 14 states in "frozen".
 Turn hot water to ice faster than cold water. Turn hot water to ice faster than cold water. Of course, this is strange, but it is a proven fact that hot water is easier to turn into ice than cold water. Logically, hot water needs to cool down to freeze. But in practice, it is hot water that turns into ice faster. Why is this happening? Until now, this issue remains unresolved. There is an assumption that the reason is the difference in hypothermia, evaporation during the formation of ice, convection, or the reason is the effect of liquefied gases on hot and cold water
 Water does not freeze at zero temperature. Water does not freeze at zero temperature. Everyone knows that ordinary water freezes at zero degrees Celsius. But there is also such a thing as “ultrapure” water, which does not have any impurities. This water remains liquid even at temperatures below zero, it freezes only at about -10–11 ° С
 Water is like glass. Water is like glass. If pure water that has frozen continues to cool to a temperature of minus 120 ° Celsius, then its structure turns from crystalline to amorphous. At this temperature, water becomes viscous and viscous. And if you bring it to minus 135 ° C, it becomes like glass
 There is a lot of protein in sea water. There is a lot of protein in sea water. As it turned out, sea water is very nutritious: 1 cubic meter of sea water contains about 1.5 kg of protein and other substances. Scientists have calculated that only one Atlantic Ocean can be compared in nutritional value with 20,000 harvested crops that are grown per year on land.
 Burning water. Burning water. This is not the "fire" water you think of (vodka or alcohol). Here we are talking about real water that burns (if you bring a match to it, it will ignite). There is such water in one of the sources of Azerbaijan, which contains a high concentration of methane.
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